More than 30 people in at least six states have contracted fungal meningitis and at least five have died.
The Centers for Disease Control said the infections came from contaminated steroid injections given for back pain.
So far, at least 35 people across Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland, Florida, North Carolina, and Indiana have contracted fungal meningitis.
Medical professionals are now scrambling to warn thousands of people in nearly two dozen states.
The injections are a common treatment for back pain. Those who got the shots between July and September may still be at risk.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include severe headache, nausea, dizziness, and fever. The time from infection to onset of symptoms is anywhere from a few days to a month.