President Obama's supporters in the Senate are promising to push ahead with votes on individual pieces of his $447 billion jobs plan.
However, there are new signs those votes could still fail.
On Thursday, the Democrat-controlled Senate failed to pass a jobs measure designed to hire more teachers and police.
The president's revised plan fell short of the 60 votes needed to break a filibuster.
Three Democrats broke away from Obama on the vote and two said the plan needs to change.
"For the second time in two weeks, every single Republican in the United States Senate has chosen to obstruct a bill that would create jobs and get our economy going again," Obama said in a statement after the vote.
"Every American deserves an explanation as to why Republicans refuse to step up to the plate and do what's necessary to create jobs and grow the economy right now," the president added.
Republicans say the jobs bill is another "ready-to-fail" stimulus.
"We cannot afford to be bailing out local governments, and we can't afford stimulus 2.0," Sen. Marco Rubio, R-Fla., countered
Democrats haven't signaled which piece of Obama's jobs plan they'll try to resurrect next as an individual bill.
There is widespread support among party members for spending on highway and bridge projects.