The American Civil Liberties Union is suing the Giles County, Va. School Board for posting the Ten Commandments as part of a history display.
Narrows High School has a copy of the Commandments displayed next to other historic documents.
The ACLU, representing an unnamed student and his parents, want the display removed, as well as a ban on any other biblical documents being displayed.
They argue that it unconstitutionally promotes a specific religious faith and serves no secular purpose.
School board members voted in June to re-hang the biblical texts as part of a display that included other U.S. historical documents. More than 50 students had walked out of class in protest over the commandments removal earlier in the year.
Liberty Counsel, a non-profit law firm and Christian ministry, is defending the board's decision.
"This is the first case of this nature I am aware of in Virginia," Matt Staver, Lliberty's founder, said.
"My obvious hope is that this case will be dismissed by the court. We don't even know if this is a real family or a real person who is behind this case," he said.