Sen. Edward J. Markey, D-Mass., is introducing a bill that would authorize the government to monitor speech on television, radio, and online.
The Hate Crime Reporting Act of 2014 would give the government the authority to classify hate speech and charge offenders with a hate crime.
The American Family Association says the bill could have a far reaching chill effect on free speech.
"This is another attempt to squash the First Amendment rights of those who don't go along with some of the social trends that are now politically correct and accepted in our society," AFA President Tim Wildmon said.
"The wording of the proposed bill is deliberately vague, so although it seems to address only constitutionally unprotected speech, it actually reaches much further," he said.
Online messages promoting marriage between one man and one woman could be labeled as hate speech, for example, and personal Facebook pages could be subject to government monitoring.