By Dr. J. Rodman Williams
Chapters: 1 -
2 - 3 - 4
- 5 -
6 - 7 -
8 - 9 -
The Christian faith essentially is the proclamation of the good news
of salvation. It is, as Paul puts it, "the gospel of your salvation"
(Ephesians 1:13), and therefore is the most wonderful and exciting message
in all the world. Let us review that message and ponder its meaning.
Our basic Scripture passage will be Ephesians 2:1-10.
I. The Condition of Man
We may first observe the condition of people prior to salvation. In
a word, Paul speaks of it as death: "And you he made alive when
you were dead."
The gospel is good news to dead people, not first of all to people
dead in their graves, but to people in a far worse condition than
that: people who are dead while still physically alive.
Who are these dead people? Paul describes them as "dead throughtrespasses
and sins in which you once walked." Sins have brought death. But
just what are these trespasses and sins in which people walk that bring
death? Paul answers: "Following the course of this world,
following the prince of the power of the air...following the desires
of body and mind."
To follow "the course of this world" is to live for worldly
goals: success, fame, wealth, security, happiness. To follow "the
prince of the power of the air" is to seek after evil in any form,
to give in to temptation of any sort, to be the devils minion. To follow
"the desires of body and mind" is to be dominated by the passions
of the flesh and the pursuits of the intellect, to make satisfactions
of the body or achievements of the mind the driving force in life. All
of these are trespasses and sins that bring death.
In passing one should note that from the worlds viewpoint these are
the things that contrariwise make for life rather than death. Life is
measured in terms of success, money, prestigeor pleasures of body and
mind. Such, however, is illusory; for all these are the ingredients
of deathdeath to the spirit, the soul of man.
Man was not made by God to follow "the course of this world"
or "the prince of the power of the air" or "the desires
of body and mind." He was made, rather, to follow the course of
heaven, the King of all power, and the desires of Gods will. "For
all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the
eyes and the pride of life, is not of the Father but is of the world.
And the world passes away, and the lust of it; but he who does the will
of God abides forever" (1 John 2:16-17). The course of the world
is the course of death; the will of God is the way of life now and always.
When man follows the course of the world, he loses God, other people,
and himself. Recall the story of Adam and Eve in the garden. Like people
ever since, they were misled into thinking that the way to live was
to follow their own desires rather than Gods commands. It mattered
not that God had said that disobedience to His will was certain death.
They became convinced that to live was to do what they wanted,
not what God wantedand so they disobeyed and died. They lost God, fearful
of him, running from His presence; they lost each other, blaming the
other person, and in the next generation actually killing each other;
they lost themselves, being ridden by feelings of guilt and shame. They
were deaddead in every way that really counted, just as dead as people
of any day and generation who likewise follow everything except God
and His will.
Are there many such dead people in the world? The answer is that all
are deadunless they know salvation through Jesus Christ.
All? Yes, all. Listen to the words of Paul in Romans 5:12: "Sin
came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so
death spread to all men because all men sinned." We may blame
Adam in part, but every man sins likewise of his own volition and hence
brings about his own death.
One other word about the condition of people prior to salvation: not
only are they dead, but they are, in and of themselves, hopeless and
helpless both in this world and the world to come. If it is true that
the physically dead cannot themselves change their lot or improve their
situation or bring themselves to life, how much more true of the spiritually
dead! They cannot get back to God, they cannot really love their neighbor
as themselves, they cannot get rid of the inner anxiety that haunts
their soul. They are shut out of the Garden of Eden, and there is no
human way back.
The world prior to salvation is a cemetery, however pretty the tombstones
and however lovely the graves. It is the place of the dead, not the
living. Paul uses two powerful phrases in Ephesians to describe the
living dead: they are "sons of disobedience" and "children
of wrath." The former phrase has been sufficiently pointed to in
our discussion of peoples willful disobedience of Gods commandments.
So the living are all dead "sons of disobedience." But what
about "children of wrath"? Whose wrath? The answer must be:
We shall come shortly to a discussion of Gods love, but we must not
pass by Gods wrath. The "wrath of God" is a powerful phrase
throughout the Bible which refers to Gods opposition to sin and evil.
Evil cannot go unnoticed, for God is holy and a consuming fire against
sin. He cannot abide unrighteousness in His presence. God driving out
man from the garden, God raining destruction on Sodom and Gomorrah,
God sending Israel into captivity, Christ angrily driving out the moneychangers
from the Templethe wrath of God is a fact because God takes sin with
Sons of disobedience, children of wrathsuch are all people prior to
salvation. Since all are dead, there is in themselves no hope. Nor does
man deserve more than the wrath of God, for he willingly follows
the course of the world and not the will of God. The wages of sin is
deathand such wages man receives and deserves no more.
The condition of man prior to salvation: dead.
II. The Mercy of God
Let us next contemplate Gods mercy in mans plight.
"But God, who is rich in mercy, out of the great love with which
he loved us, even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us
alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved), and raised
us up with him" (Ephesians 2:4-6).
This then is the mercy of God, stemming from His great love: that
though we were dead, He has brought us to life with Christ. Even as
Christ died physically and was raised by God from the dead, so we who
have died spiritually have been raised so that we are actually, in the
truest sense of the word, alive.
But, how could this have happened? Have we not spoken of the wrath
of God against all sin, that we are literally "children of wrath"?
Is this wrath suddenly shifted to mercy and is God no longer a consuming
fire against evil? Does He now because of great love somehow overlook
or tolerate evil and save the person regardless of his sin? Such were
impossible of God; mercy cannot cancel out holiness, or love replace
justice. Also, unless sin were overcome, man raised up would still be
the same "old" man because sin continues to bring death.
How then can God do it? The answer is that one marvelous wordin many
ways the most wonderful in the Biblegrace. "By grace you
have been saved." We may recall a gospel hymn with the line "Grace
greater than all our sin." The grace of God is what God does through
Christ, consistent with His holiness, that none of us deserves.
Grace is not Gods overlooking sin, for such is impossible. It is rather
Gods way, utterly undeserved by us, of dealing with sin through Jesus
Christ and bringing us to salvation through His death on the cross.
Let us look back at Ephesians 1:7-8: "In him (Christ) we have
redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according
to the riches of his grace which he lavished upon us."
Ah, there we have it! In the death ("his blood") of Jesus
Christ sin has been dealt with completely. Dead as we were through our
trespasses and sins in which we once walked, "following the course
of the world," etc., death has been overcome by "redemption
through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses."
We have spoken of the wrath of God in the Old Testament revealed against
Adam and Eve, Sodom and Gomorrah, and the Israelites. As "sons
of disobedience" they were constantly undergoing divine punishment,
more and more lost to God, lost to one another, even lost to themselves.
They deserved no more than death and Gods fury. But now we gladly call
to mind that in the Old Testament God is also revealed to be merciful
and gracious. He has no delight in punishment. His earnest desire is
that His people will repent, turn from their evil ways, and walk
in His truth. When sins are committed, there are always the alternatives:
continue in them and be destroyed, or turn from them in true repentance,
and God will surely forgive. Concerning the latter, "if my people
who are called by my name humble themselves, and pray and seek my face,
and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will
forgive their sin" (2 Chronicles 7:14)
The fact that they did not change "their wicked ways," for
they had become "sons of disobedience" and "by nature
children of wrath"indeed "dead through trespasses and sins"has
already been commented on. But this tragic lot was their own doing;
they should have been able to "turn," and in that turning
receive Gods ever ready forgiveness. Punishment brought some temporary
change in them, but the call to repentance invariably fell on deaf ears
and hard hearts.
Let us pause now to ask the question: how is forgiveness related to
Gods holiness? If God is a consuming fire against all evil, how could
He have forgiven and still been true to Himself? For does not forgiveness
mean to treat sin lightly?
To answer: forgiveness is misunderstood when it is thought of as a
"soft" way of dealing with sin. For forgiveness can only be
received where there is repentanceand repentance is hard, terribly
hard. If such repentance does come, it means turning from sin in the
assurance that all is forgiven. Hence forgiveness is not only an act
of Gods grace and mercy; it is also that which is most satisfactory
to His holiness. For, in a way that punishment never can, it
may lead to holiness of life.
To use a common illustration: a child may break a parents law and
be found out. If the parent is only concerned with justice, he will
administer appropriate discipline. But if the parent also loves
the child and desires strong character ("holiness of life")
in him, he will hope for true repentancea genuine sorrow for the sin,
and a desire to forsake itand will gladly forgive. The sin has not
been dealt with lightly: it has been overcome through travail of soul.
The final problem which the Old Testament cannot answer is how to bring
people to true repentance. God is ever standing ready to forgive their
sin, but they do not truly repent. It seems they cannot, for they are
so under sins dominion as to be "sons of disobedience" and
as a result "children of wrath." They are spiritually dead
and cannot come to real repentance.
Now to return to the New Testament and the wonderful answer which is
provided by Jesus Christ: "In him we have redemption through his
blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of
his grace." Something has happened in Christ which has brought
about true repentance and salvation. Something has happened powerful
enough to break the dominion of sin, to awaken us from the dead, to
change us from children of wrath to children of peace. Something has
brought to us overwhelming conviction of sin and the desire to forsake
it always. Something has brought us from death to life.
This "something" which has done all this, and much more,
was Christs death on the cross.
When His death on the cross first penetrates us, there comes the realization
that "there is none righteous, no, not one." We sense that
all our life and deeds are infected with the same pride and envy, the
same self-concern and self-approval, that put Him to death. The disciples
who betrayed Him, denied Him, forsook Him, the religious leaders and
nation that scourged Him and pilloried Himwe are a part of all them.
Every sin against ones neighbor is against Him who is the Son of man;
every sin against God is against Him who is the Son of God; every sin
against self is against Him through whom we were made. It is not that
we sin now and then, but that the whole bent of life"the heart
turned in upon itself"is a life that crucified Jesus Christ. We
are sinners, deserving only the wrath of Almighty God. If He should
destroy us now, we would abundantly deserve it.
Such a realization could drive us to the very brink of despair.
Like Judas of old, we might want to end it all. We may feel no repentanceonly
remorse, misery, and bleak hopelessness. Try as hard as we will to change,
to repent, we are still held fast in the toils of our own trespasses
and sins which now have become a mountain of infinite proportions.
But let us look again at this same death on the crossat something
utterly amazing. Thus far we have been seeing ourselves more and more
marked out as sinners, and the cross as the climax of our villainy.
We have been descending further and further into the abyss as we have
felt the fierce judgments of the Almighty upon our evil. But now at
the cross we discovermarvelous to relatethat God in His great mercy
and love has been following us step by step, sharing our pain, entering
into our suffering, feeling our punishment upon Himself, bearing our
evil as if it were His very own. In His holy wrath, His righteous judgments
smite us through and through; but in His holy love, He is smitten far
more than we. Far more than any earthly father who suffers with an erring
child in his pain, despair, and punishment, so God suffers with us.
It is not just that every evil is against Him, that every sin crucifies
Jesus Christ; it is that in His vast love He suffers infinitely more
than we in receiving His own judgments upon Himself. We cannot die without
His dying with us; we cannot feel Godforsaken without His feeling more
Godforsaken than we; we cannot go to the depths of Sheol without His
going at our side. So does His Son die in our death; so does He cry,
"My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"; so does Christ
descend into hell.
At last the full marvel and wonder of Gods action in the death of
Jesus Christ dawns upon us. It is not only that He died with us:
He also died for us. He not only went all the way with us; He
also so completely identified Himself in love with our lost souls that
He actually met death in our place. "The wages of sin is death"and,
marvel of marvels, we now know He made full payment. His love was so
great He could not just die with us; rather did He die our death that
we might live again.
This is what happened at Calvary. And through the vastness of
such love we can repent, because it is He Himself that has broken
the power of sin; it is He Himself who has made full atonement; it is
He Himself who was crucified in our stead; it is He Himself who pours
forth forgiveness beyond measure. O God, have mercy; Christ, have mercy:
we repent in dust and ashes. Thy mercy and love have smitten us through
In such divine compassion there is redemption; in such forgiveness
there is repentance and salvation.
III. The Role of Faith
Finally let us note the place of faith. "For by grace you
have been saved through faith; and this is not your own doing, it is
the gift of Godnot because of works, lest any man should boast."
We have beheld at the cross the incomparable vision of justice and
mercy in their ultimate expression: the wrath of God against sin being
discharged against Himself in His Son, and forgiveness being poured
into every repentant heart. It follows that faith is the avenue through
which this great salvation comes. To believe in Jesus Christ and His
death for us is essential to our repentance and receiving His wondrous
For surely there is nothing automatic about Christs dying in our place.
He died for the sins of all the world, but unless we believe in
Him and what He has done for us, we are yet "dead through...trespasses
and sins." It is only by such faith that we are brought to repentance,
and without repentance there can be no appropriation of the divine forgiveness.
It is only in such faith that we are "made alive...together with
Christ...and raised up with him."
What do our works contribute to this great salvation? Absolutely nothing:
for contrariwise it was our works that made this salvation necessary.
Our works consisted basically in "following the course of
this world, following the prince of the power of the air...following
the desires of body and mind." It was our works that led to the
loss of God, of other people, of ourselves. It was our works that led
to deaththe very death the Son of God embraced for our sakes. Our works,
whatever their supposed goodness, are all infused with evil. Our works
are those that helped nail Christ to the cross; our works are terrifyingly
shown in His agony on the tree; our worksGod, have mercy; Christ, have
So do we turn from all works to Jesus Christ. Boasting is forever gone.
Salvation is through Him and Him alone.
Then it is, on the other side of salvation, that good works do actually
begin. For even as by faith and repentance we died with Christ to sin,
so do we rise with Him to live a new life through the wonder of His
grace. We may then through the living Christ begin to do works that
are truly good. Such is Gods will, "for we are his workmanship,
created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand,
that we should walk in them." This is the goal: the climax of Gods
great act of salvation.
Chapters: 1 -
2 - 3 - 4
- 5 -
6 - 7 -
8 - 9 -
Content Copyright 2003 by J. Rodman Williams,
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