A Christian doctor in Pakistan jailed since May 5 on charges of "blasphemy" was acquitted last week, while another Christian and his adult daughter remained incarcerated after more than a month on charges of desecrating the Quran.
Dr. Robin Sardar of Pakistan's Punjab province was released on Nov. 4 after his accuser said the claim that he had blasphemed Islam's prophet Muhammad was the result of a "misunderstanding."
"The complainant said in the court that he has, through a misunderstanding, done all these things," said Ezra Shujaab of the All Pakistan Minorities Alliance , which represented Sardar.
After a thorough investigation, the court found the accusation to be baseless and freed Sardar, Shujaab said. Angry villagers and local Muslim clerics had threatened to kill Sardar if he was acquitted, and he has gone into hiding, as did his family after his incarceration six months ago. A mob bearing sticks and kerosene and chanting death threats had surrounded the family's house at that time.
In May Dr. Sardar was taken to Punjab's Gujranwala Central Jail after a Muslim vendor filed a blasphemy complaint with police, prompting the attacks on his house. Sardar and the vendor had reportedly clashed over whether the merchant could set up shop in front of the doctor's clinic.
The vendor, Muhammad Rafique, had claimed that Sardar had insulted Islam's prophet during a visit between the two men. In his written statement, Rafique had called for the death penalty for Sardar and threatened that local Muslims would riot if police did not arrest him.
Under article 295-C of the Pakistani Penal Code, blasphemy against Muhammad merits death.
As happened to Sardar, violent Muslim mobs also attacked the home of Gulsher Masih after his daughter was accused of desecrating the Quran on Oct. 9 in the village of Tehsil Chak Jhumra.
Both he and his daughter, 25-year-old Sandal Gulsher, have been detained in Faisalabad since Oct. 10, and the rest of the family has gone into hiding.
A mob numbering in the hundreds gathered at the house of Masih last month armed with sticks, stones and bottles of kerosene after accusations that he had encouraged his daughter to tear pages from the Quran were broadcast over loudspeakers from a mosque.
"A mob came and they stoned their house, and they put the kerosene oil on the whole house to put it on fire," said Yousef Benjamin of the National Commission for Justice and Peace. "However, just before that the police came in."
Initially the whole family was taken into protective custody by police from the nearby Faisalabad station.
Under pressure from the mob, police on Oct. 10 charged Masih's daughter - and Masih himself, for defending her - with violating section 295-B of the Pakistani Penal Code, which prescribes life imprisonment for those convicted of desecrating the Quran.
"When on the 10th the police were ready to register the FIR, I was there and more than 100 Muslim people were forcing the police saying 'We want Gulsher and his daughter to be hanged,'" said Quaiser Felix, a journalist for Asia News.
Masih and his daughter remain in custody and await a court hearing. They will plead innocent and deny all charges, said Shujaab, adding, "They did nothing."
The rest of the family is in hiding, unable to return home due to fears of reprisal.
"It is very common in Pakistan that when a Christian person is caught or booked under blasphemy laws, then even if the court releases him or her they have to migrate from the area," said Benjamin. "It is dangerous; they cannot come back to the community openly."
Both Sardar and Gulsher's families now face the prospect of never returning to their home towns, said Shujaab of APMA.
"Sardar, though he was acquitted, he cannot live in the home where he was residing," said Shujaab. "They have to live like refugees."
Although false blasphemy charges are leveled at Muslims as well as Christians in Pakistan, religious differences are often a motivating factor for the accusations.
"Muslims become challenged by these people, those who are somewhat established Christians," said Shujaab. " Out of jealousy they want to throw these people out of the villages. They have involved them so that they should not live there in that village."