Al-Ghazali was a twelfth-century Muslim theologian from Persia, or modern-day Iran. He was concerned that Muslim philosophers of his day were being influenced by ancient Greek philosophy to deny God’s creation of the universe.
One of the most astonishing developments of modern astronomy, which Ghazali would never have anticipated, is that we now have strong scientific evidence for the beginning of the universe.
Not only must the various constituents that make up Earth’s present-day atmosphere be carefully fine-tuned, those constituents must vary in highly specified ways throughout all of Earth’s history.
The history of science reveals many instances where the majority of scientists have been convinced as to a particular theory and yet been wrong.
Sometimes, scientists cling to a belief because they prefer its philosophical implications.
Researchers are uncovering more and more examples of the functional importance of junk DNA. In light of this on-going advance, it is becoming harder and harder to maintain that genomes are riddled with the vestiges of the evolutionary process. Instead, it is becoming increasingly apparent that genomes are elegant, sophisticated systems, worthy of a Creator.
Religious or spiritual people might wonder if God's power directly intervened in human evolution—or if nature had enough power to accomplish this advance on its own.
It has always been easy to make evolution attractive at first glance, but it only takes a bit of digging to show how much is based on broad speculations.
So when does a coincidence in nature leave the realm of a statistical probability and step into the world of improbability?